contact us










Minnesota Permit to Carry Application

back to more

Anatomy Tactics Drills - MN Application - MN Relevant Laws - UT Application - Q&A's - Quotes - Late Breaking News

Application - Force Statutes - How to Handle Permit - Force in Self Defense - Mindset of Self Defense - Carry at the State Fair

The Minnesota Personal Protection Law requires County Sheriffs to issue handgun carry permits to law abiding residents and non-residents who apply through a statewide standard procedure.  If, within 30 days of application, the sheriff doesn't deny the request, the permit is automatically granted.  If the sheriff denies the permit, the burden of proof is upon him to prove that the applicant may pose a danger to himself and others if allowed to carry a handgun in public.  The application has three pages which ask for information already on the driver's license. A time stamped receipt is given to the applicant to start the 30 day clock.  A fee of up to $100.00 covers the administrative costs and yearly background checks for five years, the duration of the permit.  The carry permit allows holders to acquire handguns and semi-automatic assault type weapons without needing a permit to purchase.  The permit holder may carry a loaded handgun for self defense on or about his clothes, which means open or concealed, in the glove box or under the seat of his car.  The law is clear about prohibited zones and  the requirement for accredited training within one year of application or renewal both in the use of a handgun and also in the limitations on the use of deadly force. You must apply in person, fill out the application completely, sign everywhere indicated, submit a copy of your current Minnesota Driver's License, a copy of the pistol course completion certificate, and up to $100 to the sheriff of the county in which you reside.

New Application Form Revised 10-01-06 (Acrobat Reader .pdf file)

BCA FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions and Permit Reports

example letters of notification for carry in courthouses and the capitol area

Here is a two sided business card to hand store owners who ban guns.

The 2005 carry law re-enactment and relevant statutes



South Dakota now honors the MN permit as long as you don't live in SD.

     23-7-7.4.   Nonresident permit to carry concealed pistol--Validity in South Dakota-- Application. Any valid permit to carry a concealed pistol, issued to a nonresident of South Dakota, is valid in South Dakota according to the terms of its issuance in the state of its issue, but only to the extent that the terms of issuance comply with any appropriate South Dakota statute or promulgated rule. However, if the holder of such a nonresident permit to carry a concealed pistol becomes, at any time, a legal resident of South Dakota, the provisions of this section no longer apply.  Source: SL 2005, ch 123, § 1.

Currently these states honor the MN Resident permit:

   Alaska, Arkansas, Arizona, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana,  Michigan, Missouri, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia


Note: This list is subject to change, so be sure to check with each state before you plan to carry there.  Also, you must obey the carry laws in each of these states which may differ from those of MN.  See Gun Laws or Handgunlaw.us (maps, laws and reciprocity of other states) for more details.

These states do not recognize non-resident permits:  CO, MI, SC, NH, FL, KS, WV

 In addition, the Louisiana Website states: 

Pursuant to R.S. 40:1379.3(T)(1) a valid permit in another state is valid in Louisiana if the issuing state honors concealed handgun permits issued by Louisiana.

Permit holders are reminded that while carrying a concealed handgun in another state they are bound by that state's laws governing concealed carry and permittees from other reciprocal states are bound by Louisiana concealed carry laws while in Louisiana. 

And the Minnesota website states:

Minnesota laws authorize individuals holding gun permits from the following states to carry in Minnesota:  Alaska, Arkansas, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Mexico, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Wyoming 




Force Statutes

top       back to more

Anatomy Tactics Drills - MN Application - MN Relevant Laws - UT Application - Q&A's - Quotes - Late Breaking News

Application - Force Statutes - How to Handle Permit - Force in Self Defense - Mindset of Self Defense - Carry at the State Fair


We at Gunthorp are not lawyers, and can not give opinions concerning legal matters.  We advise consulting with an attorney for any matters dealing with the law.  Here is an abridged and concise wording of excerpts of related Minnesota statutes.  See the statutes for the complete language.  The use of force and the restrictions on the use of deadly force at the end are copied verbatim from the Minnesota Statutes.

A Permit is required of a person who carries, holds, or possesses a pistol in a motor vehicle, snowmobile, or boat, or on or about the person's clothes or the person, or otherwise in possession or control in a public place.

A  permit holder must display the permit card and a driver's license, state identification card, or other government-issued photo identification upon lawful demand by a peace officer. A citation for not having it will be dismissed if the person was authorized to carry the pistol at the time.

Upon the request of a peace officer, a permit holder must write a sample signature in the officer's presence to aid in verifying the person's identity.

Upon the request of a peace officer, a permit holder shall disclose to the officer whether or not the permit holder is currently carrying a firearm.

Applications by Minnesota residents for permits to carry shall be made to the county sheriff where the applicant resides. Nonresidents may apply to any sheriff.

A sheriff must issue a permit to an applicant that has training in the safe use of a pistol, is at least 21 years old, completes an application, and is not prohibited from possessing a firearm.

A permit to carry a pistol is a state permit and is effective throughout the state.

An applicant must present evidence that the applicant received training in the safe use of a pistol within one year of the date of an original or renewal application. Training must include fundamentals of pistol use, an actual shooting qualification exercise, and instruction in the fundamental legal aspects of pistol possession, carry, and use, including self-defense and the restrictions on the use of deadly force.

An applicant must submit in person a completed application form, a photocopy of the certificate of training, a photocopy of the applicant's current driver's license, state identification card, or the photo page of the applicant's passport, and a fee up to $100.

A permit is void and must be immediately returned to the sheriff if the permit holder is or becomes prohibited by law from possessing a firearm

The sheriff must provide a signed receipt indicating the date of submission.

The sheriff must conduct a background check and again yearly to ensure continuing eligibility.

The sheriff must, within 30 days, issue or deny the permit to carry.  Failure of the sheriff to notify the applicant of the denial within 30 days constitutes issuance

The sheriff must provide a laminated permit card to the applicant by mail.

A permit expires five years after the date of issue. It may be renewed in the same manner which the original permit was obtained, no earlier than 90 days prior to the expiration.  The permit holder may renew the permit by submitting the application packet and a fee up to $75.  A permit holder who submits a renewal after the expiration date of the permit, but within 30 days after expiration, may renew the permit by paying an additional late fee of $10.

The renewal permit is effective beginning on the expiration date of the prior permit to carry.

Within 30 days after changing permanent address, or within 30 days of having lost or destroyed the permit card, the permit holder must notify the issuing sheriff of the change, loss, or destruction. Failure to provide notification as required by this subdivision is a petty misdemeanor.  A permit holder may obtain a replacement permit card by paying $10 to the sheriff. The request for a replacement permit card must be made on the standardized form and, except in the case of an address change, must include a notarized statement that the permit card has been lost or destroyed.

The permit to carry is void at the time that the holder becomes prohibited by law from possessing a firearm, in which event the holder must return the permit card to the issuing sheriff within five business days.

A permit to carry is not required of a person:

(a) to keep or carry about the person's place of business, dwelling house, premises or on land possessed by the person a pistol;

(b) to carry a pistol from a place of purchase to the person's dwelling house or place of business, or from the person's dwelling house or place of business to or from a place where repairing is done, to have the pistol repaired;

(c) to carry a pistol between the person's dwelling house and place of business;

(d) to carry a pistol in the woods or fields or upon the waters of this state for the purpose of hunting or of target shooting in a safe area; or

(e) to transport a pistol in a motor vehicle, snowmobile or boat if the pistol is unloaded, contained in a closed and fastened case, gunbox, or securely tied package.

A person shall not be restricted as to the number of pistols the person may carry.

Any person aggrieved by denial or revocation of a permit to carry may appeal by petition to the district court having jurisdiction.   The court must issue its writ of mandamus directing that the permit be issued and order other appropriate relief unless the sheriff establishes by clear and convincing evidence that there exists a substantial likelihood that the applicant is a danger to self or the public if authorized to carry a pistol under a permit.

A sheriff must not maintain records or data collected. 

A person carrying a firearm who remains at a private establishment knowing that the operator of the establishment has made a reasonable request that firearms not be brought into the establishment may be ordered to leave. A person who fails to leave when so requested is guilty of a petty misdemeanor.  A reasonable request means the requester has prominently posted a conspicuous sign at every entrance or the requester personally informs the person that guns are prohibited in the premises.

The owner or operator of a private establishment may not prohibit the lawful carry or possession of firearms in a parking facility or parking area.

The lawful possessor of a private residence may prohibit firearms, and provide notice thereof, in any lawful manner.

A landlord may not restrict the lawful carry or possession of firearms by tenants or their guests.

An employer may establish policies that restrict the carry or possession of firearms by its employees while acting in the course and scope of employment

A public postsecondary institution may establish policies that restrict the carry or possession of firearms by its students while on the institution's property.

An employer or a postsecondary institution may not prohibit the lawful carry or possession of firearms in a parking facility or parking area.

A person may not carry a under the influence of a controlled substance, under the influence of any chemical compound or combination of chemical compounds that affects the nervous system, brain, or muscles of the person so as to impair the person's clearness of intellect or physical control, or when the person is under the influence of alcohol. 

When an officer has reason to believe that the person may be violating, the officer may require the person to provide a breath sample for the purpose of deciding whether an arrest should be made and whether to require the chemical tests authorized.  Following the preliminary screening test, additional tests may be required.

If a person’s alcohol concentration is .10 or more, the permit is revoked and the person may not reapply for a period of one year from the date of conviction.

If a person’s alcohol concentration is more than .04, the permit is suspended for 180 days from the date of conviction.

A firearm carried in violation is not subject to forfeiture.

A person who carries is required to take the test when requested by an officer who has probable cause to believe the person was carrying a pistol in violation.  If a person refuses to take a test a court may impose a civil penalty of $500 and may revoke the person's authority to carry for a period of one year from the date of the refusal.

A person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor who negligently stores or leaves a loaded firearm in a location where the person knows, or reasonably should know, that a child is likely to gain access, unless reasonable action is taken to secure the firearm against access by the child.

It is a crime to furnish a child under 14 years of age, or as a parent or guardian to permit a child to handle or use, outside of the parent's or guardian's presence, a firearm or airgun of any kind, or any ammunition or explosive.  Possession of written evidence of prior consent signed by the minor's parent or guardian is a complete defense to a charge.

Whoever possesses, stores, or keeps a dangerous weapon or uses or brandishes a replica firearm or a BB gun while knowingly on school property is guilty of a felony.

Whoever possesses, stores, or keeps a replica firearm or a BB gun on school property is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

School property means a public or private elementary, middle, or secondary school building and its improved grounds, whether leased or owned by the school, a licensed child care center during the period children are present and participating in a child care program, a school bus when that bus is being used by a school, and that portion of a building or facility under the temporary, exclusive control of a public or private school.

This does not apply to permit holders in a motor vehicle or outside of a motor vehicle to directly place a firearm in, or retrieve it from, the trunk or rear area of the vehicle or with written permission of the principal of the school or the director of the child care center. 

A person, other than a federally licensed firearms dealer, who transfers a pistol or semiautomatic military-style assault weapon to another without a background check is guilty of a gross misdemeanor if the transferee possesses or uses the weapon within one year after the transfer in furtherance of a felony crime of violence, and if the transferee was prohibited from possessing the weapon at the time of the transfer or it was reasonably foreseeable at the time of the transfer that the transferee was likely to use or possess the weapon in furtherance of a felony crime of violence.

It is a felony to possesses a dangerous weapon, ammunition, or explosives within any courthouse complex or in any state building within the Capitol Area except permit holders who so notify the sheriff or the commissioner of public safety, as appropriate.

A person who discharges or who witnesses the discharge of a firearm and knows or has reason to know that the discharge has caused bodily harm to another person, shall immediately investigate the extent of the person's injuries; and render immediate reasonable assistance to the injured person. It is an affirmative defense if the defendant proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the defendant failed to investigate or render assistance because the defendant reasonably perceived that these actions could not be taken without a significant risk of bodily harm to the defendant or others.

It is a crime to commit an act with intent to cause fear in another of immediate bodily harm or death, or to intentionally inflict or attempt to inflict bodily harm upon another.  When a person is convicted of a violation the court shall determine whether the defendant owns or possesses a firearm and whether the firearm was used in any way during the commission of the assault.

It is a crime to recklessly handle or use a gun so as to endanger the safety of another, or intentionally point a gun, whether loaded or unloaded, at or toward another.

It is a felony to sell or have in possession any device designed to silence a firearm, or to intentionally discharge a firearm under circumstances that endanger the safety of another, or to recklessly discharge a firearm within a municipality.

The 2007 DNR Hunting Regulations Handbook Page 122 states that under general regulations for both Chippewa and Superior National Forest Lands "Possession of firearms in the National Forest is allowed subject to state laws regarding carry and concealment and both state and federal laws regarding prohibited persons.

609.06 Authorized use of force.  Subdivision 1. When authorized. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 2, reasonable force may be used upon or toward the person of another without the other's consent when the following circumstances exist or the actor reasonably believes them to exist:

(1) when used by a public officer or one assisting a public officer under the public officer's direction:

(a) in effecting a lawful arrest; or (b) in the execution of legal process; or (c) in enforcing an order of the court; or (d) in executing any other duty imposed upon the public officer by law; or

(2) when used by a person not a public officer in arresting another in the cases and in the manner provided by law and delivering the other to an officer competent to receive the other into custody; or

(3) when used by any person in resisting or aiding another to resist an offense against the person; or

(4) when used by any person in lawful possession of real or personal property, or by another assisting the person in lawful possession, in resisting a trespass upon or other unlawful interference with such property; or

(5) when used by any person to prevent the escape, or to retake following the escape, of a person lawfully held on a charge or conviction of a crime; or

(6) when used by a parent, guardian, teacher, or other lawful custodian of a child or pupil, in the exercise of lawful authority, to restrain or correct such child or pupil; or

(7) when used by a school employee or school bus driver, in the exercise of lawful authority, to restrain a child or pupil, or to prevent bodily harm or death to another; or

(8) when used by a common carrier in expelling a passenger who refuses to obey a lawful requirement for the conduct of passengers and reasonable care is exercised with regard to the passenger's personal safety; or

(9) when used to restrain a person who is mentally ill or mentally defective from self-injury or injury to another or when used by one with authority to do so to compel compliance with reasonable requirements for the person's control, conduct, or treatment; or

(10) when used by a public or private institution providing custody or treatment against one lawfully committed to it to compel compliance with reasonable requirements for the control, conduct, or treatment of the committed person.

Subd. 2. Deadly force used against peace officers. Deadly force may not be used against peace officers who have announced their presence and are performing official duties at a location where a person is committing a crime or an act that would be a crime if committed by an adult.

Subd. 8. "Great bodily harm" means bodily injury which creates a high probability of death, or which causes serious permanent disfigurement, or which causes a permanent or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ or other serious bodily harm.

609.065 Justifiable taking of life.

The intentional taking of the life of another is not authorized by section 609.06, except when necessary in resisting or preventing an offense which the actor reasonably believes exposes the actor or another to great bodily harm or death, or preventing the commission of a felony in the actor's place of abode.


How to handle Permit

top       back to more

Anatomy Tactics Drills - MN Application - MN Relevant Laws - UT Application - Q&A's - Quotes - Late Breaking News

Application - Force Statutes - How to Handle Permit - Force in Self Defense - Mindset of Self Defense - Carry at the State Fair


How to Handle That Brand New Concealed Weapon Permit

By: Charles Heller

Congratulations on your shiny new CCW permit. Let's work on making sure it doesn't malfunction. First of all, let's start out with a little language adjustment. From now on, that "K" word, which has to do with death, is exorcised from your vocabulary. No one should hear you talk in terms of "killing". Your new grail is "defense". Keep it holy.

"Guns." Now there's a word you are only going to use around your shooting friends. ANYWHERE else, they are to be referred to as "defensive tools". From now on, there are some places you will NEVER utter certain words. You will NOT talk about anything that goes "boom" or "bang" in a bank, school, airport, or any public building. That "B" word that has to do with things going boom is "outta here". If it is necessary to check a gun at an airport, you will say to the ticket agent, something to the effect of, "I have an UNLOADED firearm in hard sided, locked case for checked luggage". This tells them that you know the rules.

You will NOT, under any circumstances, "just so happen" to let your gun show in public. It is thrilling to experience the awesome responsibility of self protection for the first time. Enjoy it. You have just graduated from subject to citizen. But don't rub anybody's nose in it. Not everybody is as happy about your new freedom as you are. Let's not make them uncomfortable. It's not that you want to tiptoe around people. It's that you want to gently bring them around to your point of view .

Your defensive tool is for protection of your life or your person from great bodily harm, or that of another innocent person. You can only use it when the threat against you is immediate and unlawful, and the assailant has the ability, proximity, and intent to use deadly force against you.

The next thing you're going to do is become well versed in the laws on the use of force in self protection. Get Alan Corwin's excellent book, "Gun Owner's Guide" for whatever state you live in. Subscribe to a couple of firearm publications. Start out by going to a used bookstore and figure out which ones you like best. "Guns And Ammo" is one of the oldest and most respected. Masad Ayoob is another excellent writer. Get his book, "The Truth About Self Defense". If you're a woman, get Paxton Quigley's wonderful work, "Armed And Female".

Now find a friend and go to the range. Do it once a month. Shoot with both hands, one hand, and your offside (support) hand. Save your best target and record on it the defense implement used, and how you fired (standing, sitting, supported, etc.) Keep them in a file so that, God forbid you ever use it for real, you have some evidence as to your competency. Make it a bulls eye target, (not a silhouette), so it doesn't look like you're practicing an assassination, O.K.?

When you're confident with that, go get more training. The best school in the country is Gunsite up near Prescott Arizona. It ain't cheap, but it's worth more than you could ever pay for it. Thunder Ranch in Texas is another great one. So is Lethal Force Institute in New Hampshire. Do some research. Go to gun shows and look around. Stay in the learning mode.

Face reality. Understand that if you ever draw your gun in public, the likely result is that you will be arrested. Even if your use of force, or threat of it, is justified, the cops can't tell the good guy from the bad guy when they first arrive on a crime scene. If your assailant doesn't have a weapon, you will go to jail. If the person who attacks you was armed, and your story matches the facts, you have a better chance of spending that night in your own bed. If your use of force is within your home against an intruder, you will likely not be arrested on the spot. In Arizona, recklessly displaying or discharging a firearm is a felony.

Keep your eyes and ears open on the street. Alertness is a developed skill. Know in advance what you will do if trouble occurs. You will do in real life whatever you have practiced in training. If you've practiced nothing, you'll likely do nothing if trouble finds you. Have a plan, and know what you'll say if you are approached by a police officer or any person in authority.

Last of all, get to know a criminal defense attorney. Not the guy who does your real estate stuff or your taxes. Find a serious trial attorney who knows which end of the gun the round comes out of, and go see him once a year with $250 or so in your hand. If he won't take a 2:00 AM collect call at home, ask him for a referral to an insomniac attorney who understands self defense. It is a whole lot more powerful on the street if a police officer starts to ask you questions and you know your lawyer's home phone or cellular number.



Charles Heller is a concealed weapons instructor and radio talkshow host, & public speaker. c.heller@juno.com or (520) 419-2500
Permission granted to reprint whole, with attribution



Force in Self Defense

top       back to more

Anatomy Tactics Drills - MN Application - MN Relevant Laws - UT Application - Q&A's - Quotes - Late Breaking News

Application - Force Statutes - How to Handle Permit - Force in Self Defense - Mindset of Self Defense - Carry at the State Fair


Justification For Force In Self Defense

by Charles Heller


In order for you to be able to use force to defend yourself under Arizona law, the threat against you must have both of two conditions:

1) The threat against you must be immediate.

You CANNOT use force against a future threat. If someone says to you, "I'm going to go home, get my Lightweight Officer's Model, with Meprolight Tritium nite sights, load it with a Glaser Safety Slug, followed by a Mag Safe, and 5 185 grain +p Hornady hollow points, then come back and shoot you in the second shirt button", you CANNOT use force on this person. It's a future threat.

2) The threat against you must be an UNLAWFUL act.

The act that someone commits must be a crime for you to be able to use force against them. A burglar has no "right" to self defense during the burglary. The standard of the use of this force in self defense is what a reasonable person would believe is immediately necessary under the circumstances.

The use of physical force is NEVER justified by verbal provocation alone, or to resist an arrest that the person knows or should know is being made by a peace officer or someone acting at the direction of a peace officer, unless that force used to make the arrest exceeds the amount of force allowed by law.

In order to maintain the viability of self defense in any prosecution, the user of the force must clearly communicate to the other combatant that they have no desire to engage in a fight, and to stop using force if the assailant withdraws or clearly communicates their desire to withdraw.

Example: You're on a Saturday husband drag through the local busy mall. While distracted by the widow display at Fredrick's, a local baggy pants homeboy bumps into you, then becomes irate. As he approaches you in a hostile manner, YOU must deescalate the conflict. Even though he bumped into you, it is wise to apologize and carefully withdraw from the conflict. If you engage in any fighting words, or you assume a "fighting stance", the witnesses will report "an altercation". This will not go well for you when the police arrive. If on the other hand, you carefully back away from the assailant with your hands in front of you, palms out so that you can shove him away if necessary, you preserve your physical posture and your legal defense as well. The witnesses will now report an "attacker" and a "defender".

Tell him that you are sorry, and that you want no part of him, and to leave you alone. If he persists, order him away in a increasingly louder tone. If he gets within striking distance, tell him you'll use force to defend yourself. If you have a defensive tool such as pepper mace or an ASP baton, now is a good time to get it ready. Remember that unless he has a weapon, deadly force is neither called for nor justified.

If you are a guy, don't use profanity. It sounds angry. If you are a woman, get as blue as you can. It shocks a bad guy because it is less expected from women and it tends to throw a bad guy off guard.

One more thing - if you carry any weapon and you allow an altercation to escalate without trying to deescalate, the fact that you brought the weapon is evidence against you as to the premeditation to use force. Remember that courts have little to do with the truth. They have to do with what you can make people believe.



Charles Heller is a concealed weapons instructor and radio talk show host, & public speaker. c.heller@juno.com or (520) 419-2500
Permission granted to reprint whole, with attribution



Mindset of Self Defense

top       back to more

Anatomy Tactics Drills - MN Application - MN Relevant Laws - UT Application - Q&A's - Quotes - Late Breaking News

Application - Force Statutes - How to Handle Permit - Force in Self Defense - Mindset of Self Defense - Carry at the State Fair


Mindset of Self Defense

by Harley Swiftdeer "Gunnie" Reagan
President, KeepAndBearArms.com


What are the mindset qualities that armed citizens must possess in order to achieve the willingness to use a firearm and possibly seriously wound or kill a criminal in defense of their own lives?


People cannot truly make a 100% determination that they are ready, willing and able to take a human life if necessary in defense of their own lives or the lives of others until they have been in the saddle and as we say in the business "the elephant is trumpeting and the red flag is flying." Therefore, the first aspect of Mindset is one's attitude in relationship to not only the sacredness of life, but the reality that self-defense and self-preservation are the Keys Attributes of Spiritual Integrity. The one and only thing that most human beings can change when learning any new arena of knowledge is the Attitude. Nowhere is it more critical to have an "attitude adjustment" than in the arena of the possibility of taking a human life. (More on the attitude and what underlies the appropriate self-defense attitude in a moment.)

Following one's attitude is one's approach to critical, life-threatening situations. Attitude + Approach = autonomic response in times of stress and crisis situations. Therefore, practicing "what if" scenarios must include the actual visual impact effects of gunshot wounds with all the blood, gore and the lifelessness of a body laying at your feet. I know this is harsh, but I am speaking from personal experience both in combat in Vietnam and as a law enforcement officer. No sane person would constantly dwell on such things, but any fully prepared person must at least consider the harsh realities enough to be fully prepared for their unfortunate potentiality.

As an LEO in civilian life, I had to use my firearm with justifiable use of lethal force on two occasions where death of a criminal resulted. Notice that I am emphasizing death of a criminal. While a criminal is indeed a two-legged animal, they are not nor do they deserve to be referred to as a human being. A human being is someone who shows humanness, is contributor to humankind and shows genuine care to humanity, devoting part of their life to humanity: humans in unity. Enough said.

What we are really dealing with in a personal confrontational crisis situation of a life-threatening nature is the preservation of our life or the lives of innocent citizens from the forcible violence of a predatory two-legged animal. Therefore, I'll use an analogy that should be clear to all but the most ignorant of the two-legged animal clan:

Most humans love animals, especially our dogs and cats -- our house pets. But now you come home one evening and discover that your wife and children are trapped in your back shed because your lovely pet bozo has been bitten by a rabid coyote and is there foaming at the mouth, trying to attack the very humans who have fed and cared for it and loved it very dearly. But you must understand, this is no longer bozo the pet; it is a rabid dog (the violent criminal), and therefore, you must destroy it in order to preserve the sacred memories you have of it.

"Hesitation on your part may and frequently does result in death..."

One's attitude must be predicated upon a realistic assessment that a violent criminal is a predator -- a malevolent predator who has absolutely NO regard for the sacredness of life. They are, in essence, rabid. Therefore, it is absolutely essential that you understand this clearly: Just as in the above analogy where a sane person presented with choosing between a family member or a rabid dog must shoot the dog as quickly and safely as possible, when presented with a "your life or his" choice, you must also drop the criminal as quickly as possible. Hesitation on your part may (and frequently does) result in death anyway, only it could be the death of a human -- instead of the death of a violent criminal.

Mindset Quality

1) Clear sober perception of the reality at hand.

2) Positive attitude that you will survive at all costs.

3) Approach to a quick, autonomic presentation of your firearm up into "the shooter's box" and a distinct inner voice that says, "Front sight, press."

Nothing more, nothing less, leads to ultimate survival in a gunfight.

How do you develop the mindset that you will shoot to stop a violent attack?

You must realize that your duty, obligation and responsibility is just that: to stop the attack. It must never be to "kill" the attacker. NEVER. You are trying to stop them, no matter what. One of the ways that you can analyze your mindset is, if you have used your firearm in self-defense, notice if your hands are sweating, heartbeat increased, respiration shallow... You were operating in fear for your life. Therefore, you had no choice but to defend your life. However, and this is crucial in the mindset, if you acted in anger, your hands will be dry, your breath will be calm, and your respiration will be only slightly higher.

Therefore, what I am speaking of is the after effects of having used a firearm in a lethal situation. Back to mindset. A clear, sober perception of the reality at hand is a quick biofeedback monitoring of the above. In every single instance where I have used a firearm self-defensively -- as a civilian or law enforcement -- I "reality checked," albeit quickly, my basic palm/moisture feedback mechanism, heart rate and breathing -- quickly -- drawing in a deep breath, relaxing it and holding part of the breath in my lower abdomen, forcing myself to have a clear front site with a hazy target in order to make my shots hit in the center of critical body mass. This requires practice, practice, practice and training, training, training in order to become autonomic as part of your marksmanship.

Mindset, marksmanship, and gun handling are the trinity principles for proper bearing of a firearm. Of the three, mindset is crucial, marksmanship comes with training and practice, and gun handling comes by thorough indoctrination in the cardinal rules of firearm safety:


1) Familiarity with your weapon
2) Method of carry
3) Proper fit of holster and belt, ie. The leather/rig
4) Comfortableness in hand Proper sight/picture alignment
5) Trigger control
6) Breathing


1) All firearms are always loaded all the time. Treat them as such.

2) Always keep your muzzle pointed in a safe direction.

3) NEVER, EVER point the muzzle at anything you are not willing to destroy.

4) Keep finger off trigger at all times until you have clearly identified your target and what lies behind it and to both sides.


Read the book "Lead Poisoning, 25 Stories at the Wrong End of a Gun" in order to understand the reality that you can be shot and survive. This is crucial in establishing the mindset necessary in order to bypass the panic response factor (PRF) that allows you to transcend your fear. (My story of being shot is one of the 25.)

See the video "Deadly Effect of Weapons".

I highly recommend you read Unintended Consequences by John Ross for this reason: it shows you in a clear and very graphic way what could become necessary to defend your life and liberty if the anti-constitution government continues assaulting our rights. No rational human being wants such things to happen, but a rational patriot must face the fact that it might.



Carry at the State Fair

top       back to more

Anatomy Tactics Drills - MN Application - MN Relevant Laws - UT Application - Q&A's - Quotes - Late Breaking News

Application - Force Statutes - How to Handle Permit - Force in Self Defense - Mindset of Self Defense - Carry at the State Fair

With many new permit to carry holders out there and with the illegal actions of municipal and county governments (including the governmental organization responsible for the State Fair) CCRN’s President, Joe Olson, has prepared the following regarding the posting at the Minnesota State Fair.

When carrying at the fair, you may also want to carry this e-mail and the following phone number should you be illegally challenged, detained or ejected from the fairgrounds. CCRN is interested in any permit holder illegally challenged, detained or ejected for carrying while on the state fairgrounds for the purposes of litigation against State Fair Management.

Tim Grant – 612-869-2799

CCRN believes the law is clear. The State Fair's so-called "gun ban" is invalid as to holders of carry permits.

Like other "governmental units" the Minnesota Agricultural Society (which operates the State Fair) has no authority to ban the possession or carry of pistols by those who hold carry permits. Carry permit holders are responsible (they have passed criminal, mental, and chemical dependency background checks), competent (they have passed a DPS validated training course), adults (age 21) who are proven good citizens.

The signs posted at the Fairgrounds may be, however, effective against criminals (who are unlikely to comply) and non permit holders (who are unlikely to care).

The Agricultural Society is a governmental unit of the state (Minn. Stat. sec. 37.14). It has authority to adopt ordinances and rules for the Fairgrounds (violation of which is a misdemeanor) but only those which are "consistent with law." (Minn. Stat. sec. 37.16)

Carry permits and their exercise are governed solely by Minn. Stat. sec. 624.714 (enacted in April 2003). That law says, in part:

Subd. 2. Scope. A permit to carry a pistol ... is a state permit and is effective throughout the state.

Subd. 23. Exclusivity. * * * No sheriff, police chief, governmental unit, government official, government employee, or other person or body acting under color of law or governmental authority may change, modify, or supplement these criteria or procedures, or limit the exercise of a permit to carry.

By it's rule and signs, the Agricultural Society is attempting to "limit the exercise of a permit to carry." This it has no lawful power to accomplish.

Tim Grant


And another perspective from the field:

I read your section on Carry at the State Fair.  I am a retired Duluth police
officer and have worked as part-time Minnesota State Fair police officer. I
only worked during the Minnesota State Fair, a.k.a the Great Minnesota Get
Together. I became very disturbed with the position you posted on this matter. 
During the fair the state fairgrounds becomes a business, you pay to get in,
thus the Ag. Society reserves the right to restrict gun permit holders in their
place of business.  The Minnesota State Fair police are instructed to remove
any violators without a big scene being created for the CCRN. 

I am a LIFE Member NRA and certified by the State of Minnesota to Instruct
Concealed Carry.  I do not advocate to my students that they have the right to
enter the Minnesota State Fair grounds during the fair with a concealed
handgun.  During paid events the fairgrounds are every much a business, and a
big business at that, as the Miller Hill Mall. During non-paid events to enter
you can carry on the property.  The position you list encourages permit holders
to trespass during paid events.  It only serves to undermine the idea that
permit holders are law abiding.  It would be foolish to challenge the law in
this manner.  I quit the CCRN over their position on this matter.  



top       back to more

Anatomy Tactics Drills - MN Application - MN Relevant Laws - UT Application - Q&A's - Quotes - Late Breaking News

Application - Force Statutes - How to Handle Permit - Force in Self Defense - Mindset of Self Defense - Carry at the State Fair

 Web Pages: STORE  HOME - Contents - Classes - Permit - Advanced - Expert - Reloading - Schedules - Firearms - Safety - Pistol - Rifle - Shotgun - Black Powder - Pneumatic - Ammo - Basics - Specifications - Pricelist - Holsters - Styles - Badges - Accessories - Gun Cases & Safes - Cleaning Tips -  Knives - Reloading & Casting - Black Powder - Optics & Lights - More - Anatomy, tactics, drills - Carry Permit Info MN - Relevant MN Statutes -- Carry Permit Info FL Carry Permit Info WI - Q and A's  - Quotes - Late Breaking News - Links - Portal

    Arm the republic with dependable quality, value, and knowledge.  


Gunthorp  Duluth, MN email: info@gunthorp.com